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Graphic Novels, Comics, and Manga

Citing Graphic Novels in MLA

Citing Graphic Novels  and Manga in MLA

Follow the basic form at of that as a book. Though pay attention to the special cases as noted below. See Section 5.5.12 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for more information.

Basic Format: Author’s last name, first name. Title of work. Publication city: Publisher, year. Medium of publication.

Author as Artist/Illustrator

In a graphic novel, text and illustrations are intermingled. The entry in the works-cited list for a graphic novel entirely created by one person follows the same format as any other non-periodical print publication

Example :  Barry, Lynda. What It Is. Montreal: Drawn & Quarterly, 2008. Print.

Collaborative Works (different author, artistist/illustrator)

For graphic novels created through collaboration, start with the person whose contribution is most relevant to your research, following it with a label identifying the person’s role. List other collaborators after the title in the order in which they appear on the title page, also with labels identifying their roles.

Example: Pekar, Harvey, writer. The Quitter. Art by Dean Haspiel. Gray tones by Lee Loughridge. Letters by Pat Brosseau. New York: Vertigo-DC Comics, 2005. Print.

Example:  Robertson, David. 7 Generations : A Plains Cree Saga. Illus. Scott B. Henderson. Winnipeg: HighWater Press, 2012. Print.

(Illus is the abbreviation for illustrator)

Multi-Volume Work 

If the graphic novel is part of a multi-volume work, you may add information about the series following the medium of publication. 

Example: Miller, Frank. Just Another Saturday Night. Milwaukie, OR: Dark Horse Books, 2005. Print. Vol. 6 of Frank Miller’s Sin City: Booze, Broads, & Bullets

Content adapted from

Citing Comics in MLA

Citing Comics and Cartoons in MLA

See Section 5.7.9 of the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers  for more information.

Basic Format

Lastname, Firstname. “Name of comic.” Comic Strip. Source of Comic. Date comic published. Print.

Example  Cartoon

Gross, Sam. Cartoon. New Yorker 23 May 2011: 28. Print.

Comic Strip Example

McDonnell, Patrick. "Mutts." Comic strip. San Francisco Chronicle 25 June 2011: E7. Print.

Krahulik, Mike and Jerry Holkins. “Penny Arcade.” Web Comic. 28 Jan. 2011. Web. 15 Feb. 2011.