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This guide supports students and faculty in the Geological and Environmental Sciences program at WMU.

Data and Statistics

Data vs. Statistics

Raw data is a primary source. It is available in its entirety with minimal interventions, for you to analyze and draw conclusions from

A dataset is a collection of organized data. For example, an Excel spreadsheet is a dataset.

Statistics are secondary sources describing data in numerical form, such as with counts, totals, and averages.

Resources for finding data

The University Libraries have many state geological and soil surveys in full text format in our book stacks. These are the general areas on the Lower Level of Waldo Library where you can find the various surveys. Linked items will take you to online sites.

Name Call Number
Michigan Geological Survey Materials (various) QE125 .A12 - QE126
USDA Web Soil Survey (interactive map) Online
Other State Geological Surveys (various - in alphabetical order by state name) QE81-181
USDA Archived Soil Surveys by State Online
USGS Mineral Industry Surveys Online
USGS Publications Warehouse Online


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Micaela Carignano
1050 Waldo Library